why capacitor is required for single phase motor?

A capacitor is required in a single-phase motor to provide the necessary starting torque and to overcome the voltage fluctuations in the single-phase power supply.

The capacitor is connected in series with the starting winding of the motor, which produces the starting torque.

Without a capacitor, a single-phase motor will not have starting torque and cannot run.

A capacitor is needed for single-phase induction motors, such as capacitor start type.