An isolation transformer is a type of transformer that transfers electrical power from one circuit to another without any direct connection between them.
It is used for safety reasons, to reduce noise and interference, and to isolate different parts of a system.
¹An isolation transformer has two windings: a primary winding and a secondary winding. The primary winding is connected to the power source, and the secondary winding is connected to the load.
The windings are wrapped around a common magnetic core, but they are electrically separated by an insulation layer.
This prevents any direct current (DC) from flowing between the windings, and also blocks any common-mode noise or transients that may be present on the power line.
¹²An isolation transformer can also change the voltage level of the power, depending on the number of turns on each winding. If the primary winding has more turns than the secondary winding, the voltage on the secondary will be lower than the voltage on the primary. This is called a step-down transformer.
If the primary winding has fewer turns than the secondary winding, the voltage on the secondary will be higher than the voltage on the primary. This is called a step-up transformer.
Most isolation transformers have the same number of turns on both windings, so that the voltage on the secondary is equal to the voltage on the primary. This is called a 1:1 transformer.
²Some examples of applications that use isolation transformers are:- Medical devices: Isolation transformers are used to protect patients and medical staff from electric shock and to prevent interference from other devices in the hospital.
²- Electronics testing and servicing: Isolation transformers are used to isolate test equipment from the device under test, and to avoid short circuits or ground loops that may damage the device or affect the measurements.
¹- Sensitive equipment: Isolation transformers are used to filter out high-frequency noise and harmonics that may affect the performance or accuracy of computers, laboratory instruments, or audio equipment.